A negative (i.e. unpleasant) intergroup emotion based on the perception that out-group members are harmful to oneself, one’s group or one’s group members. Hatred stems from the appraisal that the harm is intentional and stemming from a stable evil character of out-group members, thereby diminishing any hope for potential change and neutralizing motivation to change attitudes or behaviours of out-group members. Hatred motivates an intention to harm out-group members and leads to the aspiration of removing them from in-group’s environment. In contrast with anger, which is focused on the actions of the target, hatred is exclusively focused on the out-group target itself.
Halperin, E. (2008). Group-based hatred in intractable conflict in Israel. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 52(5), 713-736. doi: 10.1177/0022002708314665